Glycemic Index

Glycemic Load

Glycemic load is an accurate indicator of how foods affect blood sugar levels.  Glycemic load table is a vital tool in controlling diabetes.  It may be use in conjunction with a carbohydrate and a calorie table for enhanced blood sugar management.

Values may differ based on preparation; cooking methods, and food combinations. Rice is generally known to have a high glycemic load. Factors such as adding beans or butter may change that glycemic load to a moderate level. This can be attributed to high fiber content of beans or the fat content in butter.

Most measurements are based on approximately 30-50g. Liquids 250ml and grains 150g.  Categories are approximation, and some values are based on mean of two or three studies.  Each category is color coded of quick easy referencing

Glycemic load should not be the sole basis of dietary parameters. Other aspects such as fats and calories are also factors that can affect the outcome of blood glucose levels and should be considered in meal planning.

LOW                   –           Safe
MEDIUM        –           Use in moderation
HIGH                –            Avoid

*Lowest value in category


Foods with low glycemic index

Smoothie drink, soy, banana
Smoothie drink, soy, chocolate hazelnut
Apple juice, pure, cloudy, unsweetened
Carrot juice, freshly made
Tomato juice, canned, no added sugar
Hi-Pro energy drink mix, vanilla, containing soy protein and whey powder
Milo TM (Nestlé) dissolved in water
Milo TM (Nestlé) dissolved in full-fat cow’s milk
Nutrimeal TM, meal replacement drink, Dutch Chocolate
Quik TM (sweet drink powder)
Quik TM, dissolved in water
Quik TM, dissolved in 1.5% fat milk
Backed goods
Barley Breads
Apple muffins, made without sugar
Scones, plain, made from packet mix
Waffles, Aunt Jemima
Barley flour breads
100% barley flour (rye bread composition)
Buckwheat bread, 50% dehusked buckwheat groats and 50% white wheat flour
Bread with Fruit
Fruit and Spice Loaf, thick sliced bread
Continental fruit loaf, wheat bread with dried fruit
Happiness TM (cinnamon, raisin, pecan bread)
Muesli bread, made from packet mix in bread making machine
Hamburger bun
Gluten-free multigrain bread
Gluten-free fiber-enriched bread, (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran)
Oat bran bread
50% oat bran bread
45% oat bran and 50% wheat flour bread
Rice bread
Rice bread, low-amylose Calrose rice
Rice bread, high-amylose Doongara rice
Rye Bread
Rye kernel (pumpernickel) bread
Coarse rye kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden)
Rye kernel bread (Pumpernickel) (Canada)
Wholegrain pumpernickel bread
Rye kernel bread, Pumpernickel
Whole-meal rye bread
Specialty rye breads
Klosterbrot wholemeal rye bread
Light rye bread
Linseed rye bread
Sourdough rye bread
Volkornbrot, wholemeal rye bread
Wheat Breads
Coarse wheat kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white wheat flour
Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft
White wheat flour bread
White bread with enzyme inhibitors
White bread + acarbose (200mg) (Mexico)
White bread with soluble fiber
White fiber-enriched bread
White bread , high-fiber
White resistant starch-enriched bread
9-Grain Multi-Grain bread
Wholemeal flour bread
Multigrain Loaf, spelt wheat flour bread
Multigrain bread (50% kibbled wheat grain)
Nutty Natural TM, whole grain bread
Sourdough wheat
Soy & Linseed bread (made from packet mix in bread maker)
Stay Trim TM, whole grain bread
Pita bread, white
Wheat flour flatbread (India)
Amaranth : wheat (25:75) composite flour flatbread (India)
Breakfast cereal
All-Bran TM
Bran Buds TM
Bran Buds with psyllium
Hot cereal, apple & cinnamon
Hot cereal, unflavoured
Oat bran, raw (Quaker Oats Co.)
Taco shells, cornmeal-based, baked (Old El Paso Foods Co., Toronto, Canada)
Wheat crackers
No Bake Egg Custard, prepared from powder with whole milk
Custard, home made from milk, wheat starch, and sugar
No Bake Egg Custard, prepared from powder with whole milk
Ice cream (flavored plain)
Ice cream, low-fat
Ice cream, Premium (high-fat)
Full-fat + 20g wheat bran
Milk, skim
Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with aspartame
Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with sugar
Mousse, reduced-fat, prepared from commercial mousse mix with water (all flavors)
Instant, chocolate, made from powder and whole milk
Yogurt regular
Yogurt with fruit
Yogurt non-fat, low-fat,
Yogurt sweetened with artificial sweeteners
Soy products
Soy-based dairy product alternatives
Soy milks (containing maltodextrin)
Soy milks (containing maltodextrin) light or full fat (3%), reduced-fat (1.5%), plus calcium
Soy smoothie drink
Tofu-based frozen dessert, chocolate with high-fructose (24%) corn syrup
Fruit and fruit products
Apples, raw
Apple, dried
Apricots, raw
Cherries, raw*
Custard apple, raw
Paw paw (papaya), ripe
Peach, raw
Peach, canned in natural juice
Pear halves, canned in reduced-sugar syrup,
Pear halves, canned in natural juice
Pear, canned in pear juice, Bartlett
Pineapple, raw (Australia) 6
Plum, raw
Prunes, pitted
Cantaloupe, raw
Strawberries, fresh, raw*
Strawberry jam
Tomato juice, no added sugar
Watermelon, raw*
Baked Beans, canned
Beans, dried, type
Butter beans
Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans, Bengal gram), boiled
Chickpeas, canned in brine
Haricot/Navy beans, boiled
Kidney beans
Kidney beans
Lentils, green, dried, boiled
Lentils, green, canned in brine
Lentils, red, dried, boiled
Lima beans, baby, frozen
Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled
Mung bean soaked, boiled
Mung bean, germinated*
Peas, dried, boiled**
Pigeon Pea
Pinto beans, dried, boiled
Pinto beans, canned in brine)
Soya beans
Soya beans, dried, boiled
Soya beans, canned
Split peas, yellow, boiled
Nutritional supplement foods
Ensure Pudding
Choicedm TM, vanilla (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Evansville, IN, US)
Resource Diabetic TM, French vanilla (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Young America, MN, USA)
Glucerna TM, vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc., USA)
Resource Diabetic TM, French vanilla (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Young America, MN, USA)
Nutritional bars and shakes
Hazelnut & Apricot bar
Protein bars
Protein cookies
Ultra pure-protein TM shakes
Packaged, instant or fast foods
Instant noodles
Mung bean noodles
Split pea and soya pasta shells
Chocolate, milk, plain, low-sugar with maltitol
Fruity Bitz TM , vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snacks
Fruity Bitz TM, apricot (Blackmores Ltd., Balgowlah, NSW, Australia)
Fruity Bitz TM, berry (Blackmores Ltd., Australia)
Fruity Bitz TM, tropical (Blackmores Ltd., Australia)
M & M’s ® , peanut (Mars Confectionery, Australia)
Nougat, Jijona (La Fama, Spain)
Nutella ® , chocolate hazelnut spread (Ferrero Australia, Milson’s Point, NSW, Australia)
Cashew nuts, salted
Peanuts, crushed
Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven
Snack bar, Peanut Butter & Choc-Chip
Ironman PR bar ® , chocolate (PR Nutrition, San Diego, CA, USA)
Lentil, canned (Unico, Concord, Canada)
Minestrone, Traditional, Country Ladle TM (Campbell’s Soups, Homebush, NSW, Australia)
Noodle soup (traditional Turkish soup with stock and noodles)
Tomato soup
Frozen dinners
Chicken nuggets, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min
Fish Fingers, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min
Sausages, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min
Blue agave cactus nectar, high-fructose
Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 90% fructose (Western Commerce Corp., City of Industry, CA, USA)
Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 97% fructose (Western Commerce Corp., USA)
25g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., Toronto, Canada)
50g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., Toronto, Canada)
50g portion
50g portion
50g portion (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA)
25g portion, fed with oats
mean of six studies
50 g portion (dextrose)
25g portion, fed with oats
50 g portion
50 g portion (dextrose)
50 g portion
50 g portion (Bio-Health, Dawson Traders Ltd., Toronto, Canada)
50 g portion
50 g portion (Glucodin TM glucose tablets, Boots, North Ryde, NSW, Australia)
25 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada)
50 g portion (dextrose)
100 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada)
Glucose consumed with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.)
25 g glucose (Glucodex solution, Rougier Inc., Chambly, Quebec) with 3 g dried ginseng
25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min after 3 g dried ginseng
25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min before 3 g dried ginseng
mean in two groups of subjects
Glucose consumed with gum/fiber
46 g Glucose + 15 g apple and orange fiber extract (FITA, Chatswood, NSW, Australia)
(total carbohydrate content of drink = 50 g)
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g guar gum
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g oat gum (78% oat ß-glucan)
100 g Glucose + 20 g acacia gum
Locust honey (Romania)
Yellow box (46% fructose) (Australia)
Stringy Bark (52% fructose) (Australia)
Red Gum (35% fructose) (Australia)
Iron Bark (34% fructose) (Australia)
Yapunya (42 % fructose) (Australia)
50 g lactose (Sigma Chemical Company, USA)
25 g lactose (BDH, Poole, UK)
25 g lactose
50 g sucrose (Sigma Chemical Company, USA)
Sugar alcohols and sugar-replacement compounds
25 g lactitol
25 g Litesse II, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)
25 g Litesse III ultra, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)
Maltitol-based sweeteners or bulking agents
25 g Malbit CR (87% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)
25 g Maltidex 100 (> 72% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)
25 g Malbit CH (99% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)
25 g Maltidex 200 (50% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)
25 g xylitol
25 g Xylitol C (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)
Broad beans
Green peas
Pea, frozen, boiled
Pea, frozen, boiled
Pea, green (Pisum Sativum)
mean of three studies
Root vegetables
Carrots, raw
Carrots, peeled, boiled
Carrots, peeled, boiled
Carrots, NS
mean of four studies
Swede (rutabaga)
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled
Ethnic foods
Gram dhal (chana dal)
Hoummous (chickpea salad dip)*
Kibbeh saynieh (made with lamb and burghul)
Majadra (Syrian, lentils and rice)
Turkish bread, whole wheat
Turkish noodle soup
Bengal gram dhal, chickpea (chana dal)
Black gram, (Phaseolus mungo), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11
Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina
Green gram, (Phaseolus aureus), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11
Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder, fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup
Rajmah, Phaseolus vulgaris
Acacia aneura, mulga seed, roasted, wet ground to paste
Araucaria bidwillii, bunya tree nut, baked 10 min
Castanospermum australe, blackbean seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded and baked
Macrozamia communis, cycad palm seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded, baked
Green banana, boiled
Acorns, stewed with venison (Quercus emoryi)
Mesquite cakes (Prosopis velutina)
Tortilla (Zea mays and Olneya tesota)
White teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)
Yellow teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)
Black Beans
Brown Beans
Corn tortilla, served with refried mashed pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican)


Foods with moderate glycemic index

Angel food cake
Banana cake, made with sugar
Banana cake, made without sugar
Pound cake
Sponge cake, plain
Cupcake, strawberry-icing
Doughnut, cake type
Flan cake
Apple, made with sugar
Apple, oat, sultana, made from packet mix
Apricot, coconut and honey, made from packet mix
Banana, oat and honey, made from packet mix
Chocolate butterscotch, made from packet mix
Coca Cola ®
Carbonated or soft drinks
Fruit juices
Apple juice
Apple juice, pure, unsweetened, reconstituted
Apple juice, unsweetened
Apple and cherry juice, pure, unsweetened
Cranberry juice cocktail
Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray ®
Grapefruit juice, unsweetened
Orange juice
Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted
Pineapple juice, unsweetened
Sports drinks
Gatorade ®
Isostar ®
Sports Plus ®
Sustagen Sport ®
Drinks made from drinking mix powders
Build-Up TM nutrient-fortified drink, vanilla with fiber
Complete Hot Chocolate mix made with hot water
Malted milk powder in full-fat cow’s milk
Milo TM (chocolate nutrient-fortified drink powder)
Backed Products
Baguette, white, plain
Bread stuffing
Wholemeal barley flour (80%) bread (20% white wheat flour)
Wholemeal barley flour bread
Kaiser rolls
Melba toast, Old London
Gluten-free bread
Oat Bread
Coarse oat kernel bread, 80% intact oat kernels and 20% white wheat flour
50% cracked wheat kernel
Spelt wheat breads
White spelt wheat bread
Wholemeal spelt wheat bread
Scalded spelt wheat kernel bread
White wheat flour bread, hard, toasted (Italian)
Wonder TM, enriched white bread
White Turkish bread
English Muffin TM bread (Natural Ovens, USA)
Healthy Choice TM Hearty 7 Grain (Con Agra Inc., USA)
Healthy Choice TM Hearty 100% Whole Grain (Con Agra Inc., USA)
Middle Eastern flatbread
Amaranth : wheat (50:50) composite flour flatbread (India)
Breakfast cereals

Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped,
eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener (India)
Corn Bran TM (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada
Cream of Wheat TM (Nabisco Brands Ltd.
Froot Loops TM (Kellogg’s, Australia)
Frosties TM, sugar-coated cornflakes (Kellogg’s, Australia)
Golden Grahams TM (General Mills Inc., Canada) 15
Golden Wheats TM (Kellogg’s, Australia)
Grapenuts TM
Grapenuts TM (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., Toronto, Canada) 15
Grapenuts TM (Kraft Foods Inc., Port Chester, NY, USA)
Honey Smacks TM
Life TM (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 15
Mini Wheats TM, whole wheat (Kellogg’s, Australia)
Porridge (USA) 6
Oat porridge made from oat flakes
Quick Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)
One Minute Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 15
Raisin Bran TM (Kellogg’s, USA)
Puffed Wheat (Quaker Oats Co.
Rice Chex TM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada) 15
Rice Krispies TM (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada) 15
Shredded Wheat (Canada)
Shredded Wheat TM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada) 15
Special K TM (Kellogg’s, USA)
Total TM (General Mills Inc., Canada) 15
Wheat biscuits (plain flaked wheat)
Breakfast cereal bars
Cereal grains
Buckwheat (Canada)
Wild rice
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 (28% amylose)
Rice, white high-amylose*
Parboiled rice
Parboiled, high-amylose *
Cracked wheat boiled
Cookies/ Crackers
Graham Wafers
Puffed rice cakes, white
Premium Soda Crackers
Stoned Wheat Thins
Water cracker
Condensed milk
Condensed milk, sweetened
Yogurt drink, reduced-fat, tropical fruit
Soy products
Soy yogurt, peach and mango, 2% fat, sugar
Fruit and fruit products
Apple juice, unsweetened
Apricots, canned in light syrup
Apricot fruit bar, pureed dried apricot filling in wholemeal pastry
Banana, raw or ripe (all yellow)
Banana, processed fruit fingers
Cranberry juice drink
Dates, dried
Figs, dried
Fruit Cocktail, canned
Grapefruit, raw
Grapefruit juice, unsweetened
Grapes, raw
Kiwi fruit, raw
Lychee, canned in syrup and drained
Mango, raw
Mango, low-fat frozen fruit dessert
Marmalade, orange
Oranges, raw
Orange Juice
Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted concentrate
Orange juice, reconstituted from frozen concentrate
Paw paw /papaya, raw
Paw paw (papaya), ripe
Peach, canned in reduced-sugar syrup,
Pineapple juice, unsweetened
Blackeyed beans/peas (Cowpeas), boiled
Packaged, instant or fast foods
Corn chips, plain, salted
Greek lentil stew with a bread roll, home made
Pies, beef, party size
Pizza, cheese
Pretzels, oven-baked, traditional wheat flavour
Sushi, salmon
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice
White boiled rice, grilled beef burger, cheese, and butter
White wheat flour bread, butter, yogurt and pickled cucumber (Sweden) 6
Nutritional supplement foods
Ultracal TM with fiber (Mead Johnson, Evansville, IN, USA)
Fettucine, egg
Ravioli, durum wheat flour, meat filled, boiled
Spaghetti, gluten-free, rice and split pea, canned in tomato sauce (Orgran Foods, Australia)
Spaghetti, protein enriched, boiled 7 min (Catelli Plus, Catelli Ltd., Montreal, Canada)
Spaghetti, white, boiled 5 min
Boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)
Spaghetti, wholemeal, boiled
Wholemeal (USA)
Wholemeal (Canada)
mean of two studies
Spirali, durum wheat, white, boiled to al denté texture (Vetta, Australia)
Vermicelli, white, boiled (Australia)
Chocolate, milk,
Fruit Bars
Apricot filled fruit bar (pureed dried apricot filling in wholemeal pastry)
Heinz Kidz TM Fruit Fingers, banana
Real Fruit Bars, strawberry
Fruit Roll-Ups
Jelly beans, assorted colors
Jelly beans, assorted colors)
Kudos Whole Grain Bars, chocolate chip (M & M/Mars, Hackettstown, NJ, USA)
Life Savers ® , peppermint candy (Nestlé, Australia)
Mars Bar ®
Muesli bar containing dried fruit
Snack bars
Snack bar, Apple Cinnamon (Con Agra Inc., Omaha, NE, USA)
Snickers Bar ®
Twix ® Cookie Bar, caramel (M&M/Mars, USA)
Black Bean (Wil-Pack Foods, San Pedro, CA, USA)
Split Pea (Wil-Pak Foods, USA)
Tarhana soup (traditional Turkish soup with wheat flour, yogurt, tomato, peppers)
Pure honey
Commercial Blend honey (38% fructose)
50 g maltose
Sweet corn, boiled
Cassava, boiled, with salt
Baked potato
Baked, Russet Burbank potatoes
Russet, baked without fat, 45-60 min (USA)
Boiled potato
Desiree, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia)
Nardine (New Zealand)
Ontario, white, peeled, cut into cubes, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada)
Pontiac, peeled, boiled whole for 30 min (Australia)
Pontiac, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia)
Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada)
Sebago, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia)
Mashed potatoes
Instant mashed potato (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA)
Potato, peeled, steamed 1 h
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)
Tapioca boiled with milk (General Mills Canada Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)
Tapioca (Manihot Utilissima), steamed 1 h (India)
Ethnic foods
Cassava, boiled, with salt
Unripe or Green plantain (raw)
Moroccan Couscous (stew of semolina, chickpeas, vegetables)
Stuffed Grapevine Leaves (rice and lamb stuffing with tomato sauce)
Turkish bread, white wheat flour
Glutinous rice ball with cut glutinous cake
Lychee, canned in syrup, drained (Narcissus brand, China)
Mung bean noodles, dried, boiled (China)
Rice gruel with dried algae (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)
Rice noodles, fresh, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)
Sushi, salmon (‘I Love Sushi’ chain store, Sydney, NSW, Australia)
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan)
White rice and non-sugar yogurt (yogurt eaten before rice) (Japan)
White rice and non-sugar yogurt eaten together (Japan)
Amaranth, Amaranthus esculentum, popped, eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
Chapatti, flour made from popped wheat, moth bean and bengal gram
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), fermented batter
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus)
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus), fermented batter
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney
Mean in two groups of subjects
Horse gram, (Dolichos biflorus) soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11
Tapioca (Manihot utilissima), steamed 1h 11
Acacia coriacea, desert oak, seed bread 6
Bush honey, sugar bag
Dioscorea bulbifera, cheeky yam, peeled, sliced, soaked 2 d, baked 15 min
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Australia)
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand)
Melawach + 15 g locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) fiber (soluble)
Cactus jam (Stenocereus thurberi)
Corn hominy (Zea mays)
Fruit Leather (Stenocereus thurberi)
Lima beans broth (Phaseolus lunatus)
Arepa, made from dehulled high-amylose (70%) corn flour
Corn tortilla (Mexican)
Corn tortilla, fried, with mashed potato, fresh tomato and lettuce (Mexican)


Foods with high glycemic index

Corn muffin, low-amylose
Corn muffin, high-amylose
Carrot cake
Oatmeal, muffin, made from mix
Pancakes, prepared from shake mix
Pancakes, buckwheat, gluten-free, made from packet mix
Fanta ® , orange soft drink
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray ® Inc., Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA)
Backed products
Bagel, white, frozen
French baguette with chocolate spread
French baguette with butter and strawberry jam
Pain au lait (Pasquier, France)
Vanilla cake made from packet mix with vanilla frosting
Chocolate cake made from packet mix with chocolate frosting
Breakfast cereals
Barley porridge
Wholemeal barley flour porridge (100% regular barley)
Wholemeal oat flour porridge
Coco Pops TM (cocoa flavoured puffed rice)
Coco Puffs TM
Corn Chex TM
Cornflakes TM (Kellogg’s, USA)
Cream of Wheat TM, Instant
Crispix TM
Pop Tarts TM, Double Chocolate
Barley porridge
Wholemeal barley flour porridge (100% regular barley)
Wholemeal oat flour porridge
Cereal grains
Barley, rolled
Sweet corn (USA)
Couscous, boiled 5 min
Millet, boiled
White rice boiled (short or long grain)
White rice (instant)
White rice flavored (instant)
Broken rice
Jasmine rice
Basmati rice, white (regular, precooked, instant)
Brown rice
Cranberry juice cocktail
Dates, dried
Strawberry processed fruit bars, Real Fruit Bars
Baked products
White bread with toppings
White wheat flour bread, butter, cheese, regular cow’s milk and fresh cucumber
White bread with butter
White bread with butter and skim milk cheese
White/wholemeal wheat bread with peanut butter
Enercal Plus TM, made from powder
Corn pasta, gluten-free
Gluten-free pasta, maize starch, boiled 8 min
Gnocchi, NS
Thin, fresh, durum wheat flour
Macaroni, plain, boiled
Macaroni and Cheese, boxed
Rice noodles/pasta
Rice noodles, dried, boiled
Rice pasta, brown, boiled 16 min
Rice and maize pasta, gluten-free
Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon
Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 10-15 min
White, durum wheat, boiled 10 min in salty water (Barilla, Parma, Italy) 12
White, durum wheat flour, boiled 12 min (Starhushålls, Kungsörnen AB, Järna, Sweden)
White, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 12 min (Sweden)
Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 20 min
White, durum wheat, boiled 20 min (Australia)
Durum wheat, boiled 20 min (USA)
Spaghetti, white, durum wheat semolina (Panzani, Marseilles, France)  boiled in 0.7% salt water for 11 min
Noodles, plain, reheated 5 min
Packaged, instant or fast foods
Pop Tarts TM, double choc (Kellogg’s, Pagewood, NSW, Australia)
Skittles ® (Mars Confectionery, Australia)
Snickers Bar ® (M&M/Mars, USA)
mean of two studies
Twisties TM, cheese-flavoured, extruded snack, rice and corn (Smith’s Snackfood Co., Australia)
French Fries
French fries, frozen, reheated in microwave (Cavendish Farms, New Annan, Canada)
Microwaved potato
Potato dumplings (white wheat flour, white potatoes, boiled in salted water
Lean Cuisine TM, French style chicken with rice, reheated
Home made meals
Sirloin steak with mixed vegetables and mashed potato, home made
Spaghetti bolognaise, home made
Stirfried vegetables with chicken and boiled white rice, home made
Nutritional bars and shakes
Power Bar ®
Power Bar ® , chocolate (Powerfood Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA)
Green Pea
30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese, 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France)
Ethic foods
Maize meal porridge, unrefined, maize-meal:water = 1:3
Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hoummous, falafel and tabbouleh
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
Butter rice, warm white rice and butter
Curry rice
Curry rice with cheese
Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
Glutinous rice
Glutinous rice cake with dried sea algae
Glutaminous rice flour, instant, served warm with roasted ground soybean
Jasmine rice, white, cooked in rice cooker
Low-protein white rice with dried sea algae
Non-glutaminous rice flour, served warm with drink (Yamato Nousan, Japan)
Rice cracker, plain (Sakada, Japan)
Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, Bangkok, Thailand)
Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, China)
Roasted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)
Salted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)
Soba noodles, instant, reheated in hot water, served with soup (Japan)
Stirfried vegetables, chicken and rice, home made (Australia)
Udon noodles, fresh, reheated (Fantastic, Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia) 6
Udon noodles, instant, with sauce and fried bean curd (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan)
White rice, dried sea algae and milk, eaten together (Japan)
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten before rice) (Japan)
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten after rice) (Japan)
White rice with dried fish strip (okaka) (Japan)
White rice with fermented soybean (natto) (Japan)
White rice with instant miso soup (soybean paste soup) (Japan)
White rice with low-fat milk (Japan)
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten before rice) (Japan)
White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce (Japan)
White rice with roasted ground soybean (Japan)
White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan)
White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae (Japan)
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum),eaten as roasted bread made from bajra flour
Banana, (Musa sapientum), Nendra variety, unripe, steamed 1 h 11
Chapatti white flour, plain
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (25:75) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (50:50) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
Chapatti, baisen
Chapatti, bajra
Chapatti, barley
Chapatti, maize, (Zea mays)
Chapatti, wheat, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
Chapatti, flour from malted wheat, moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) and bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)
Chapatti, flour from roller dried wheat, moth bean and bengal gram
Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal
Green gram, whole with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked
Green gram dhal with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked
Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney
Jowar, roasted bread made from Jowar flour (Sorghum vulgare)
Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice (Australia)
Millet/Ragi, (Eleucine coracana), dehusked, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11
Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana)
Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana) flour eaten as roasted bread
mean of two studies
Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked)
Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato)
Rice, (Oryza Sativa) boiled served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
Semolina (Triticum aestivum), steamed
Semolina (Triticum aestivum), pre-roasted
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo)
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus)
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietum)
Varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 15lb 12-15 min
Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water)
Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water)
Melawach (dough made from white wheat flour and butter, fried)
Melawach + 15 g maize cob fiber (insoluble)
Melawach + 15 g lupin (Lupinus albus) fiber
Arepa, corn bread cake, made with corn flour (Mexico)
Arepa, made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour (25% amylose)

Important as dietary fiber is, laboratory technicians have not yet been able to ascertain the exact total content in many foods, especially vegetables and fruits, because of its complexity. Consequently, estimates vary from one source to another. Where differing estimates have been found, an approximation is given in the chart, as indicated by an asterisk. The same symbol following calorie content means the number of calories has been estimated, varying according to other added ingredients, especially fats and sugars, and to the size of the “average” fruit or vegetable unit.

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